- Parkinsonism; epilepsy, allergy, angle-closure glaucoma, benign prostatic hyperplasia; severe cardiac or hepatic disease; extremes in temp (hot and cold weather); presence of acute infections or leucopenia; hyperthyroidism; pregnancy, elderly, children. Patients receiving anticoagulants. Discontinue upon signs of neurological toxicity in patients taking haloperidol and lithium. Lactation: Drug enters breast milk; not recommended
- Schizophrenia, Delirium, Hiccups, Acute psychosis, Hyperactivity, Aggression, Agitation and confusion, Tic disorders, Tourette syndrome, Chorea, Nausea and vomiting, Dementia.
- Severe toxic CNS depression; preexisting coma; Parkinson’s disease; lactation.
- Adult: PO Psychoses 0.5-5 mg 2-3 times/day, up to 100 mg/day in severe cases. Maintenance: 3-10 mg/day. Severe tics; Tourette’s syndrome Initial: 0.5-1.5 mg 3 times/day, up to 10 mg/day in Tourette’s syndrome. Adjunct in severe anxiety or behavioral disturbances 0.5 mg twice daily. Restlessness and confusion 1-3 mg 8 hrly. Intractable hiccup 1.5 mg 3 times/day. Intramuscular: Acute psychosis 2-10 mg hrly or 4-8 hrly until symptoms are controlled. Max: 18 mg/day. Nausea and vomiting 0.5-2 mg/day.
Common Side Effects:
- Extrapyramidal symptoms Akathisia,Dystonia,Muscle stiffness,Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS; infrequent but serious),Parkinsonism,Tardive dyskinesia Common Anticholinergic effects,Sedation,Weight gain,Erectile dysfunction,Oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea Less common Orthostatic hypotension (after IM injection), tachycardia Agitation, anxiety, cerebral edema, depression, dizziness, euphoria, headache, insomnia, poikilothermia, restlessness, weakness, confusion Anorexia, constipation, dyspepsia, ileus, decreased gag reflex Lens opacities (prolonged use) Uncommon ECG changes,Photosensitivity,Pruritus,Diarrhea,Blood dyscrasia,Ejaculatory disorder,Galactorrhea Rare Seizure,Cholestatic jaundice,Priapism Potentially Fatal: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Mode Of Action:
- Haloperidol blocks postsynaptic dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the mesolimbic system and decreases the release of hypothalamic and hypophyseal hormones. It produces calmness and reduces aggressiveness with disappearance of hallucinations and delusions.
- Carbamazepine and rifampicin reduce plasma concentrations. Symptoms of CNS depression may be enhanced by CNS depressants e.g. alcohol, hypnotics, general anaesthetics, anxiolytics and opioids. May reduce antihypertensive action of guanethidine. May increase risk of arrhythmia when used with drugs that prolong QT interval or diuretics that can cause electrolyte imbalance. May increase plasma levels of haloperidol when used with clozapine or chlorpromazine. Potentially Fatal: Increases lithium blood levels and may predispose to neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
- Pregnancy Category – C Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks
- Drugs used in tremor, tics & related disorders,Butyrophenone drugs